The earliest traces of civilization in the In Indian subcontinent are founded in places, or close to the Indus River. First excavations started in 1921-22 in the ancient cities of Harappa & Mohenjodaro, which belongs from 4500-5000 years back. Gandhara refers to a historical region and a civilization or culture that existed, in one form or another, from the early 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD in what is now northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan.
The remains of these can still be seen in Larkana district of Sindh and Sahiwal district of Punjab. Similarly remains of Gandhara civilization can be visited in northern parts of Pakistan.  Many others are still to be explored especially in the province of Balochistan. 

Although its geographical footprint changed over time, its heart lay in the vale of Peshawar, the Pothohar plateau and along the Kabul River Mughal rule was established on1526 AD Babar was the first Ruler of Mughal Empire. After his death Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb captured the throne till 1701 AD. All these Mughal kings built several monuments, forts, tombs and mosques. 

British became masters of the land and ruled for only 100 years from 1846-1947 over what is now called Pakistan. The Muslims revival began in the beginning of 19th century when Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, launched a movement for intellectual renaissance of the Indian Muslims. In 1930, the Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal conceived the idea of a separate state for the Muslims of the sub-continent and in 1940; All India Muslim League demanded a separate independent homeland for the Muslims of India. After seven years of untiring struggle under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, 14th August 1947, Pakistan emerged on the map of the world. 


 Pakistan is a Muslim Republic State, located in one of the world’s most important strategic positions and the heart of Asia. It lies on the north-west of the Indian sub-continent, with Iran on the west of it and Afghanistan in the north. The landscape is the dream of poets, nature lovers and exciting mountain trails.   

The Pakistan comprises of four provinces, Punjab, Sind, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In addition, there are the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the Northern Areas of Pakistan. The capital of Pakistan is Islamabad with its twin city Rawalpindi, while its largest city is Karachi in Sind Province. 


Founder of Pakistan - Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)


National Poet - Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)



National Flag - Parcham-e-Sitāra-o-Hilāl (Flag of the Crescent and Star). Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle, the flag symbolizes Pakistan's profound commitment to Islam, the Islamic world and the rights of religious minorities.


State Emblem - The crescent and star which are symbols of Islam. The shield in the centre shows Pakistan's four major crops Wreath surrounding the shield represents cultural heritage and Scroll contains Quaid's motto: Unity Faith, Discipline.


National Flower – Jasmine in white Colour, representing the purity of Peaceful Nation. Jasmine shows the unity of the people of different cultures and languages in one country which is Pakistan.


National Tree - Deodar or Himalayan Cedar – National Tree Of Pakistan. It has a conic crown with level branches and drooping branch lets.


National Animal - Markhor is a large species of wild goat that is founded in Northern Afghanistan, Pakistan (Gilgit, Baltistan areas) and Pakistan usually gives hunting permits for the animal which is prized worldwide.

8. National Bird - Chakor belongs to the pheasant family and do not live in humid and rainy areas. Usually Chakor travels in groups of 5 to 30. They like wide variety of seeds and insects as food and sometimes they also swallow the dust particles.




Country Official Name

Islamic Republic of Pakistan


Parliamentary Democracy

Head of State

Asif Ali Zardari, President

Head of Government

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif

Federal Capital



Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, Gilgit Baltistan.

Important Cities

Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Multan, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Hyderabad

National Sport


Time Zone


Country Dialing Code







Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north.


796,095sq km(land:770,875 & water: 25,220 sq km)


Flat Indus plain in east, mountains in north & northwest and Balochistan plateau in West


1, 046 km


Indus, Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutluj

Natural resources

Natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, copper, salt and limestone


Temperate but mostly hot & dry and cold in North


Agriculture products

Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables, milk, beef, mutton and eggs


Textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products and fertilizer

Stock Exchanges Karachi (KSE), Lahore (LSE), Islamabad (ISE)



Sea port

Karachi, Bin Qasim and Gawadar


Quaid-e-Azam International Karachi, Allama Iqbal International Lahore, Benazir Bhutto International, Islamabad, Peshawar International, Quetta International and Sialkot International


Pakistan Railways (State Owned)

Road Network

Grand Trunk Road (N-5), Indus Highway, Karakorum Highway, Motorway (M2) and Motorway (M1)






187,342,721 (estimated)

Ethnic groups

Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baloch, Urdu-speaking, Saraiki, Hazarvi


97% Muslims and 3% Christians, Hindus & Sikhs


Urdu (national), English (official) and many regional languages





News agencies

APP, PPI, NNI, On Line and Sana

Public Media

Pakistan Television Corporation; Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Radio Pakistan)

Private Media

60 TV channels & 100 FM Radio stations

If you are seeking adventure and looking for some cultural inspiration or just want to interact with the incredibly warm, gracious and hospitable host people of Pakistan.

Visit Pakistan, through Sakura Travel and take back enduring memories of this country’s assorted landscapes.

M/s. Sakura Travel – Pakistan.
Office # 13-A, Main Street,
New Gulzar-e-Quaid, Rawalpindi.
Tel:  0092 51 570 9992
Fax: 0092 51 570 9993
Email: ;

<< Go Back   


Copyrighted, 2011  - All rights reserved.

Developed by Eteck